TRANSPORTATION

Definition:
Transport or transportation is the infrastructure and services to enable the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. The provision and operation of transport facilities and infrastructure is not an end in itself. It is a means to a series of wider ends that may be any combination of political, economic, military or social. The output resulting from the construction, maintenance and use of transport facilities and infrastructure may be expressed as intermediate economic "goods" which contribute to wider benefits or dis-benefits.
Currently there is no complete national land transport strategy in Lebanon. The car ownership rate in the country is one of the highest in the world, estimated at a ratio of around 1 car for every 3 persons. The transportation sector in Lebanon is composed of a fleet of mainly old and poorly maintained vehicles. Passenger trips occur on a relatively inferior road net work, with a weak public transportation system, and without regulation
Enforcement. In summary, the main problems of land transport in Lebanon are the over-dependency on private cars, the lack of organization, and the deterioration of the level of services provided.

 
Issues:
The assessment is based on several challenges:
  1. Economic Challenges
  2. Demographic and Urbanization Growth
  3. Infrastructure and Traffic
  4. Social Cohesion
  5. Management
1. Economic Challenges
Transportation is considered as intermediate economy. It represented 5% of the GDP but it will play an important role in the increase of the GDP by improving the trade, the tourism, Agriculture, housing service, and construction.  
 
Agriculture and livestock (6.3 %)     
Industry (13.5 %)  
Water, Energy (1.5 %)    
Buildings and Public works (9.4 %)     
Transport (5.3 %)   
Trade (21.3 %)
Housing services (Renting) (8.5 %)
Other market services (22.6 %)
Non-market services (Administrative) (11.6 %)
 
2. Demographic and Urbanization Growth
Population in agglomerations continue to increase and hence the transportation would problem will increase in these agglomeration (Bchamoun/ Armoun region) . On the other hand these agglomerations will behave as node in a transportation network.

3. Infrastructure and Traffic
In 30 years, the vehicle fleet will increase by almost 60 %, as will the average number of daily motorized trips per person in the same proportions. This will double the total number of motorized trips, taken into account the expected demographic growth. This evolution will provoke problems of infrastructure, densely located in the Central Urban Area (Greater Beirut and Mount-Lebanon), where the situation could become critical in many places if adequate managements or serious alternative public transport are not implemented. Similar problems will arise at the entrances and crossings of large cities. Road networks in rural regions, however, would continue responding to the needs, without having to increase their capacity.

This finding suggests that the pace of construction of road infrastructure has not kept up with the population growth in Mount Lebanon, compared to the rest of the country. According to a several surveys of living conditions, 62.4 percent of households in Lebanon have at least one car. The % of household with no care is decreasing and the percentage of 2 cars is increasing because of weak public transportation and the need of having both man and woman working to support the house.

The Continue of increase of number of cars with the weak public transportation system will increase the daily traffic and thus the delay. The delay is estimated as 2 billion dollars on the economy by The LEA project.

4. Social Cohesion
The current design of the Lebanese transport network is to isolate Lebanese regions from each other. An example is the North &the Beqaa from Beirut. This isolation is due to extensive time spending on traveling from one region to other; it will take more than 4 hours to commute back and fore between Tripoli and Beirut.
The public transportation owned by the government and even the one owned by private is in very bad condition so just limited number of people is using it.

5. Management
The government establishments are very weak, they lack both human and financial resources.  This is explained the missing government own public transport. Although that these government propose plan to improve the situation such as the public transport plan. The government decision is to always postpone the starting of these plans year after year.  So it seems that the government is striving to maintain the situation that citizen are using their own car extensively  so that the consumption  fuel oil is high  and thus the taxes of the government.